C03 - Clock network modeling
In general, networks of high precision clocks and their comparison enable the very precise determination of the relative gravitational potential (and the relative velocity). In this project we investigate the capabilities of such networks of the new generation of optical clocks connected by optical fiber links for a variety of applications such as Earth gravity field determination, time comparison or synchronization, navigation and positioning, and also fundamental physics tests. Since clocks directly measure the gravitational potential this opens up a fundamentally new concept for physical geodesy, that is, for e.g. geoid determination and the realization of a new global dynamic reference system. For the latter we will also make use of clocks in space.
For the thorough theoretical description of clocks and networks of clocks, one has to take into account all special and general relativistic effects like gravitational redshift, Doppler effect, gravitational time delay, Sagnac effect, and even the Lense-Thirring effect for clocks (gravito-magnetic clock effect). In fact, these effects give the information about the clocks’ relative motion and the gravitational field at their location. Based on this we then can model mass and height variations affecting the clock measurement, e.g., related to solid Earth tides.
We split this task into three main steps and an add-on regarding tests of Special and General Relativity.
- Calculation of all (relativistic) effects within clock networks on Earth.
- Investigation of new and possibly more powerful and effective concepts for height determination over long distances or to remote areas (islands) based on networks of clocks on Earth (and possibly with the help of clocks in space).
- Development of fully relativistic notions for geodesy, e.g., a fully relativistic geoid based on clocks as well as on freely falling bodies (see figure 01).
- Geodetic modeling of time-dependent gravitational fields, i.e. modeling of all relevant mass variations (mainly tidal effects) arising during the measurement time and between the epochs.
- As an add-on we would like to analyze whether these high precision clocks in the gravitational field of the Earth can also be used for new high precision tests of Special and General Relativity.
This project will also prepare the theoretical foundations for the description of clocks with accuracies better than the present one and also serves as interface project between physics/General Relativity and geodesy.
Scientists working on this project
Dr. Dirk Pützfeld
phone: +49 421 218-57934
Dr.-Ing. Hu Wu
phone: +49 511 762-4891
Müller, J., Dirkx, D., Kopeikin, S., Lion , G., Panet, I., Petit, G., Visser, P. (2018):
High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination. ISSI book on High Performance Clocks, Space Science Reviews 214:5
Guéna, J., Weyers, S., Abgrall, M., Grebing, C., Gerginov, V., Rosenbusch, P., Bize, S., Lipphardt, B., Denker, H., Quintin, N., Raupach, S., Nicolodi, D., Stefani, F., Chiodo, N., Koke, S., Kuhl, A., Wiotte, F., Meynadier, F., Camisard, E., Chardonnet, C., Lecoq, Y., Lours, M., Santarelli, G., Amy-Klein, A., Le Targat, R., Lopez, O., Pottie, P.-E., Grosche, G. (2017):
First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link, Metrologia 54: 348–354
Müller, J., Dirkx, D., Kopeikin, S., Lion , G., Panet, I., Petit, G., Visser, P. (2017):
High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination, Space Science Reviews 214:5
Philipp D., Perlick V., Puetzfeld D., Hackmann E. and Lämmerzahl C. (2017):
Definition of the relativistic geoid in terms of isochronometric surfaces, Phys. Rev. D 95, 104037
Philipp D., Pützfeld D. and Lämmerzahl C. (2016):
On the applicability of the geodesic deviation equation in General Relativity (submitted)
Pützfeld D. and Obukhov Y.N. (2016):
Generalized deviation equation and determination of the curvature in General Relativity, Phys. Rev. D 93 (2016) 044073
Obukhov Y.N., Portales-Oliva F., Pützfeld D. and Rubilar G.F. (2015):
Invariant conserved currents in generalized gravity, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 104010
Obukhov Y.N. and Pützfeld D. (2014):
Equations of motion in scalar-tensor theories of gravity: A covariant multipolar approach, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 104041
Non Peer-Reviewed Literature
Müller J. (2016):
Erdmessung mit Quanten und Relativität, BWG Jahrbuch 2016
Obukhov Y.N. and Pützfeld D. (2016):
Dynamics of test bodies in scalar-tensor theory and equivalence principle, Gravitation, Astrophysics, and Cosmology - Proceedings of the Twelfth Asia-Pacific International Conference, Moscow, 28 Jun - 5 July 2015, Eds. V. Melnikov and J.-P. Hsu, World Scientific (Singapore), 2016, pp. 231-235
Obukhov Y.N. and Pützfeld D. (2015):
Multipolar test body equations of motion in generalized gravity theories, Equations of Motion in Relativistic Gravity, D. Pützfeld et. al. (eds.), Fundamental theories of Physics 179, pages 67-119, Springer 2015
Philipp D. and Pützfeld D. (2015): On geodesic deviation in static spherically symmetric situations, April 2016, Proceedings of the 14th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 12-18, 2015, Rome, Italy
Presentations, Talks and Posters
Müller J. and Wu H. (2017): Evaluation of the contribution of optical clocks to gravity field modelling, IAG-IASPEI Joint Scientific Assembly, Kobe Japan, 30 July - 4 August 2017, Oral presentation, Abstract G02-2-03.
Pützfeld D. (2016): The Measurement of the Gravitational Field in General Relativity, Relativity seminar, University of Cologne, Germany.
Wu H., Müller J. and Brieden P. (2016): Benefit of GOCE gravity gradients at the lowered orbit on the global gravity field model, International Symposium on Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 19-23, 2016
Wu H., Müller J. and Brieden P. (2016): The IfE global gravity field model from GOCE-only observations, International Symposium on Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 19-23, 2016
Wu H., Müller J. and Brieden P. (2016): The latest IfE global gravity field model from GOCE-only observations, ESA Living Planet Symposium 2016, Prague, the Czech Republic, May 9-13, 2016, Abstract EART-107
Wu H., Müller J. and Brieden P. (2016): The IfE global gravity field model from GOCE-only observations, International Symposium on Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 19-23, 2016 more
Wu H., Müller J. and Brieden P. (2016): The latest IfE global gravity field model from GOCE-only observations, ESA Living Planet Symposium 2016, Prague, the Czech Republic, May 9-13, 2016, Abstract EART-107 more